The Jews began to prepare for armed revolt. [30] Tarquin unsuccessfully sought to take the Rutulian capital, Ardea, by storm, and subsequently began an extensive siege of the city. A Roman force under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Thermopylae[147] and forced him to evacuate Greece:[154] the Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them again in naval battles at the Battle of the Eurymedon and Battle of Myonessus, and finally in a decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. The new war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power,[91] forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. However, rebellions in Babylonia and the Jewish revolts in Judea made it difficult to maintain the captured province and the territories were abandoned. The Alamanni seized the opportunity to launch a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy. [146], Between the second and third Macedonian wars Rome faced further conflict in the region due to a tapestry of shifting rivalries, alliances and leagues all seeking to gain greater influence. Campaign history. [51] At this point the bulk of Italy remained in the hands of Latin, Sabine, Samnite and other peoples in the central part of Italy, Greek colonies to the south, and the Celtic people, including the Gauls, to the north. In the Third Mithridatic War, first Lucius Licinius Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates. This fear drove a group of senators naming themselves The Liberators to assassinate him in 44 BC. Campaign History of The Roman Military Campaign History Of The Roman Military From its origin as a city-state in Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa and fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was typically closely entwined with its military history. ); Camillus claimed that, since he was a dictator, no agreement was valid without his acquiescence, so no ransom was due and he answered Breno with another famous phrase Non auro sed ferro liberanda est patria (It is with iron, not with gold, how the homeland is released). [337] Several succeeding generals avoided battling usurpers for the throne by being murdered by their own troops before battle could commence. Almost as soon as Niger's userpation had been ended, Severus was forced to deal with another rival for the throne in the person of Clodius Albinus, who had originally been allied to Severus. As early as 53 BC, the Roman general Crassus had invaded Parthia, but he was killed and his army was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae. However, as with all such ventures in this period, Rome responded by simply sending another army. In 144 BC, Viriathus formed a league against Rome with several Celtiberian tribes[131] and persuaded them to rise against Rome too, in the Second Numantine War. [10], Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – 17 AD)[11] lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab Urbe Condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings (Romulus,[12] Numa,[13][14] Tullus Hostilius[14][15] and Ancus Marcius)[14][16] may be apocryphal. [326], At the same time, Franks raided through the North Sea and the English Channel,[327] Vandals pressed across the Rhine, Iuthungi against the Danube, Iazyges, Carpi and Taifali harassed Dacia, and Gepids joined the Goths and Heruli in attacks round the Black Sea. The Roman army battled first against its tribal neighbours and Etruscan towns within Italy, and later came to dominate the Mediterranean and at its height the provinces of Britannia and Asia Minor. Vespasian's and Vitellius' armies met in the Second Battle of Bedriacum,[294][297] after which the Vitellian troops were driven back into their camp outside Cremona, which was taken. Under Lucius Mummius, Corinth was destroyed following a siege in 146 BC, leading to the surrender and thus conquest of the Achaean League (see Battle of Corinth). Due in large part to their employment of powerful heavy cavalry and mobile horse archers, Parthia was the most formidable enemy of the Roman Empire in the east. [105] Hannibal then raised an army in Iberia and famously crossed the Italian Alps with elephants to invade Italy. However, the Visigoths were defeated in battle that summer near the modern Italian-Slovenian border and then routed in the Battle of Naissus[322] that September by Gallienus, Claudius and Aurelian, who then turned and defeated the Alemanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus. [137][246][247] Despite the loss of a large army almost to the man of Varus' famous defeat at the hands of the Germanic leader Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD,[248][249][250] Rome recovered and continued its expansion up to and beyond the borders of the known world. Despite being defeated in Iberia in the Battle of Baecula, Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively by Gaius Claudius Nero and Marcus Livius Salinator on the Metaurus River.[106]. The Eastern Roman Empire and the Goths continued to fight over Rome and the surrounding area for many years, though by this point Rome's importance was primarily symbolic. [175], Memories of the sack of Rome in 121 BC by Celtic tribes from Gaul, having been made into a legendary account that was taught to each generation of Roman youth, were still prominent despite their historical distance. The terrifying scope and vision of the Roman campaign to overrun and rule the Iberian Peninsula is revealed through its astonishing length. Despite being defeated in Iberia in the Battle of Baecula, Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively by Gaius Claudius Nero and Marcus Livius Salinator on the Metaurus River.[108]. [343], Certainly, the Sassanids had not been cowed by the previous battles with Rome and in 253 AD the Sassanids under Shapur I penetrated deeply into Roman territory several times, defeating a Roman force at the Battle of Barbalissos[343] and conquering and plundering Antiochia in 252 AD following the Siege of Antiochia. [141] A treaty was drawn up between Rome and Macedon at Phoenice in 205 BC which promised Rome a small indemnity,[125] formally ending the First Macedonian War. For the Romans, naval warfare was a relatively unexplored concept. [134] Viriathus' new coalition bested Roman armies at the Second Battle of Mount Venus in 144 BC and again at the failed Siege of Erisone. In the meantime, it also affected the agriculture as well as diet regime of the empire. In a process known as the Marian reforms, Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military. Rome's last gasp began when the Visigoths revolted around 395 AD. [139], The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations. [301] Judea was already a troubled region with bitter violence among several competing Jewish sects[301] and a long history of rebellion. [97] Xanthippus managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy, then defeated and captured Regulus[98] at the Battle of Tunis. They did not pick any particular target since the Romans were so close together that they could hardly miss...If they kept their ranks they were wounded. [308], Although the essential problem of large tribal groups on the frontier remained much the same as the situation Rome faced in earlier centuries, the 3rd century saw a marked increase in the overall threat,[311][312] although there is disagreement over whether external pressure increased,[310] or Rome's ability to meet it declined. In the Battle of Locus Castorum the Othonians had the better of the fighting,[291] and Vitellius' troops retreated to Cremona. In 121 BC, Rome came into contact with the Celtic tribes of the Allobroges and the Arverni, both of which they defeated with apparent ease in the First Battle of Avignon near the Rhone river and the Second Battle of Avignon, the same year.[176]. After early Sassanid successes including the Battle of Amida in 359 AD and the Siege of Pirisabora in 363 AD,[347] Emperor Julian met Shapur in 363 AD in the Battle of Ctesiphon outside the walls of the Persian capital. [132] In 144 BC, the general Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus campaigned successfully against the Lusitani, but failed in his attempts to arrest Viriathus. The Romans raised a consular army under Quintus Caecilius Metellus, who swiftly defeated Andriscus at the Second battle of Pydna. By 390 BC, several Gallic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north as their culture expanded throughout Europe. [127] By 179 BC, the Romans had mostly succeeded in pacifying the region and bringing it under their control. Pompey was decisively defeated in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC[234][235] despite outnumbering Caesar's forces two to one. The extensive campaigning abroad by Rome, and the rewarding of soldiers with plunder from those campaigns, led to the trend of soldiers becoming increasingly loyal to their commanders rather than to the state, and a willingness to follow their generals in battle against the state. In the years following Carrhae, the Romans were divided in civil war and hence unable to campaign against Parthia. Romans defeat Antiochus III at Battle of Magnesia. [195][196] It supposedly took Pompey just forty days to clear the western portion of the western Mediterranean of pirates,[197][200] and restore communication between Iberia, Africa, and Italy. Claudius' successor Aurelian defeated the Goths twice more in the Battle of Fanum Fortunae[320] and the Battle of Ticinum. The two armies met again on the Via Postunia, in the First Battle of Bedriacum,[292] after which the Othonian troops fled back to their camp in Bedriacum,[293] and the next day surrendered to the Vitellian forces. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands. By this time Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal Barca sought to cross the Alps into Italy and join his brother with a second army. [157] Rome declared war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian War. When the Aetolians sued for peace with Philip, Rome's small expeditionary force, with no more allies in Greece, was ready to make peace. [161] Much of that land had been granted to the kingdom of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria, in return for its past military assistance. Seven years after their defeat, with Roman dominance of the area looking assured, the Samnites rose again and defeated the Romans at the Battle of Camerinum in 298 BC, to open the Third Samnite War. [25] According to the Fasti Triumphales, Servius celebrated three triumphs over the Etruscans, including on 25 November 571 BC and 25 May 567 BC (the date of the third triumph is not legible on the Fasti). [61] The First Samnite War of between 343 BC and 341 BC that followed widespread Samnite incursions into Rome's territory[62] was a relatively short affair: the Romans beat the Samnites in both the Battle of Mount Gaurus in 342 BC and the Battle of Suessula in 341 BC but were forced to withdraw from the war before they could pursue the conflict further due to the revolt of several of their Latin allies in the Latin War.[63][64]. In the 7th century BC there was a war with Alba Longa, a second war with Fidenae and Veii and a second Sabine War. [206][212] In 52 BC, following the Siege of Avaricum and a string of inconclusive battles,[213] Caesar defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix[214] at the Battle of Alesia,[215][216] completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. In a pattern familiar from the Punic Wars, the Romans came into conflict with him after the two states' spheres of influence began to overlap. [348] Militarily, however, the Empire finally fell after first being overrun by various non-Roman peoples and then having its heart in Italy seized by Germanic troops in a revolt. At the Battle of Mutina Antony was again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who was killed. [203] After slaughtering the Helvetii tribe,[204] Caesar prosecuted a "long, bitter and costly"[205] campaign against other tribes across the breadth of Gaul, many of whom had fought alongside Rome against their common enemy the Helvetii,[202] and annexed their territory to that of Rome. Tarquinius doubled the numbers of equites to help the war effort,[23] and defeat the Sabines. However, in 406 AD an unprecedented number of tribes took advantage of the freezing of the Rhine to cross en masse: Vandals, Suevi, Alans and Burgundians swept across the river and met little resistance in the Sack of Moguntiacum and the Sack of Treviri,[360] completely overrunning Gaul. Tarquinius was desirous of obtaining the booty which would come with victory over the Rutuli. [139] A treaty was drawn up between Rome and Macedon at Phoenice in 205 BC which promised Rome a small indemnity,[123] formally ending the First Macedonian War. [108][109] Hannibal's success continued with victories in the Battle of the Trebia,[108][110] the Battle of Lake Trasimene, where he ambushed an unsuspecting Roman army,[111][112] and the Battle of Cannae,[113][114] in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art, and for a while "Hannibal seemed invincible",[106] able to beat Roman armies at will. These wars, starting in 264 BC[87] were probably the largest conflicts of the ancient world yet[88] and saw Rome become the most powerful state of the Western Mediterranean, with territory in Sicily, North Africa, Iberia, and with the end of the Macedonian wars (which ran concurrently with the Punic wars) Greece as well. Following further aggression and further bribery attempts, the Romans sent an army to depose him. [267][268] Tribes in modern-day Scotland and Northern England repeatedly rebelled against Roman rule and two military bases were established in Britannia to protect against rebellion and incursions from the north, from which Roman troops built and manned Hadrian's Wall. Rome's military was always tightly keyed to its political system. [179] The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened, and caused great fear in Rome. 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